There is Power in the Past: Sith Archaeology and Propaganda in Star Wars

There is Power in the Past: Sith Archaeology and Propaganda in Star Wars

Valley of the Dark Lords
Sith archaeological excavation sites outside the Sith Academy on Korriban

Unsurprisingly for a fictional universe that takes place “a long time ago, in a galaxy far, far away”, there is a fair amount of representation for archaeology in the lore of Star Wars. This is especially true for the Expanded Universe (recently made uncanonical with Disney’s acquisition of the franchise, but still canonical in the hearts of many fans – including my own!).

For Jedi, the role of the archaeologist was an alternative to following the path of becoming a Jedi Knight. Jedi archaeologists would train at the Academy of Jedi Archaeology before heading off with the Jedi Exploration Corps for excavation alongside other researchers, such as biologists and zoologists (Wallace 2010). On the other side of the Force, however, the Sith were also actively pursuing their own archaeological research.

In the video game series Knights of the Old Republic (Bioware 2003), for example, the Sith academy on the planet Korriban appears to be in the midst of a large scale excavation of the “Valley of the Dark Lords”, similar to Egypt’s own “Valley of the Kings”. The ruins of the tombs of several Sith lords have been uncovered here – Ajunta Pall, Ludo Kressh, Naga Sadow, and Marka Ragnos. As you enter the excavation site, you encounter numerous Sith students and droids at work – often in dangerous circumstances, as predatory creatures are also found throughout the ruins.

So why would the Sith care this much about archaeology? Most likely the same reason why archaeological research has been used by fascists and dictators in the real world’s past: propaganda. For example, excavations under Nazi Germany were led with the intent of producing results that would become part of the proud nationalism that so identified their political party (Galaty and Watkinson 2007). As a political tool, archaeology can be used as “proof” for a distorted past that gives credit to whatever propaganda a political party is rallying behind; that one race is better than another, that one’s beliefs are more true, etc. History can be a powerful tool for oppression, and the misuse of archaeology makes for an excellent tool in legitimising (Arnold 2008).

In the Star Wars universe, the same can be said of Sith archaeology. The Sith, unlike their Jedi counterparts, believe that one should be proud of the power they wield, and constantly seek more. The tombs of the ancient Sith, as well as most of the walls of the Sith Academy itself, are lined with massive iconography depicting towering statuary that lord over the valley itself, creating an oppressive aesthetic that fits the Sith ideology well.

Statues in the Valley of the Dark Lords
The giant statuary standing above the Valley of the Dark Lords

Of course, there’s another level of practicality in archaeology of the Star Wars universe – the past can actually talk back. Holocrons are common methods of recording information by both the Sith and the Jedi, allowing for users to be taught by the recorded holograms of those from the ancient past (Wallace 2010). Spectral beings, through the Force, can also be encountered and spoken with – this may come in the form of a benign spirit, such as Obi-Wan Kenobi in Empire Strikes Back and Return of the Jedi, or in a malicious spirit ready to fight and kill any mortal that dares to intrude, as seen in the many tombs of the Sith.

The Sith use this interactivity with the past as a tool not only for pushing their own propaganda, but also instilling the lessons they live by – that power is key, and only be defeating those around you can you succeed (Veitch and Anderson 1994). In Knights of the Old Republic, you infiltrate the Sith Academy as an apprentice  and are put to work diving into the ruins of the Sith tombs. The usefulness of this practice is twofold for the Sith masters – on one hand, the defence mechanisms placed into the tombs, which consist of dangerous creatures as well as dark Force spirits, can weed out the weak from the strong, an important aspect in Sith ideology. On the other hand, this also aids in the retrieval of many Sith artefacts – again, a showcase of power that works as propaganda, as well as a transfer of power itself. A Sith who wields the mighty sword of Ajunta Pall, for example, could lay some hefty claim on power within the Sith hierarchy.

In the Star Wars universe, the Sith are an example of the corruptibility of power – how greed for power, even if it begins with good intentions, can lead to the Dark Side. The same can be said for archaeology in a sense – although it may have started with the intention of discovering the past, in the wrong hands it can be used as a political weapon as powerful and as deadly as a red bladed lightsaber and corrupt any good that may have once come from it.

Valley of the Dark Lords II
The massive ruins of Sith tombs in the Valley of the Dark Lords

References

Arnold, B. (2008) The Past as Propaganda: Totalitarian Archaeology in Nazi Germany. Antiquity.

Bioware. (2003) Star Wars: Knights of the Old Republic

Galaty, M. L. and Watkinson, C. (2007) The Practice of Archaeology Under Dictatorship. Archaeology under Dictatorship. pp. 1-17.

Obsidian Entertainment. (2004) Star Wars: Knights of the Old Republic II The Sith Lords

Veitch, T. and Anderson, K. J. (1994) The Quest for the Sith. Tales of the Jedi: Dark Lords of the Sith 2. Vol. 2. Dark Horse Comics.

Wallace, D. (2010) The Jedi Path: A Manual for Students of the Force. Chronicle Books.

All I Want For Christmas is a Skeleton: An Archaeological Wishlist for the Holidays

All I Want For Christmas is a Skeleton: An Archaeological Wishlist for the Holidays

It’s the holiday season, so would I be a proper blogger if I didn’t write up a gift guide? As someone who tries to support small businesses and individual artists when I can, all of the gifts will be from Etsy (which, to be fair, I’ve found has some of the coolest and most unique stuff for gifts!).

If you’ve got an archaeologist in your life, here’s a list of things that might score you some points with them over the holidays:

  • For the classical archaeologist who just got into the denim jacket craze- famous archaeological finds in pin and patch form!SaladDays is an Etsy store that creates amazing enamel pins and patches based on classic works of art throughout history. This includes some of the most famous archaeological finds from Ancient Greece and Rome – perfect for any classical archaeologist in your life.

  • For the bioarchaeologist who asked for a gift card but you want to make sure it’s delivered in a relatable way – bad osteology joke greeting cards! A Sense of Humerus is an Etsy store that makes cute and hilarious cards that would make any bone specialist laugh…or at least cringe a bit. But the illustrations are lovely!

  • For the too-cool-for-school punk archaeologist who has been working on their own archaeological zine for the past six months – a set of cool, independently made archaeology comics! Prehistories creates gorgeously illustrated and archaeologically-inspired work on their Etsy store –

  • For the ceramics specialist who would probably be more interested in checking your dinnerware for residue after your holiday dinner – beautifully made replicas of archaeological pottery! PottedHistory has been creating some absolutely gorgeous replicas of archaeological pottery that spans from the Neolithic to even the 20th century.

  • And for me, the zooarchaeologist who has been trying to build up her own personal reference collection as ethically as possible – amazingly accurate animal skeleton replicas! Okay, so Bone Clones isn’t an Etsy store, but they’re probably one of the most popular manufacturers of replica animal bones out there!

Happy holidays from Animal Archaeology!

I will be putting this blog on hiatus as I travel back to the US for Christmas and will be back at the start of 2018 with lots of new and exciting features! Stay tuned!

A Thanksgiving Blog Post Without Turkeys, ‘Cos I Don’t Have Any Turkey Bones

A Thanksgiving Blog Post Without Turkeys, ‘Cos I Don’t Have Any Turkey Bones

As an American, I feel a bit obligated to make a themed-post for Thanksgiving. But here’s the problem: I don’t have any turkey bones in my collection.

So, what’s a zooarchaeologist blogger to do? Well, the next best thing: here’s a minipost looking at the bones of domestic fowl and why it’s important to differentiate between domestic and wild birds in an archaeological assemblage.

Have a happy Thanksgiving, fellow Americans!

In zooarchaeology, domestic fowl usually refers to domesticated species of birds such as chickens, turkeys, and guineafowl. Of course, this can vary greatly depending on the regional and temporal contexts of an assemblage.

Differentiating between domesticated and wild birds are just as important as differentiating between domesticated and wild mammals. This gives us a better idea of what kind of food and other animal products accessible to the inhabitants of a site, as well as what may have been hunted (and in some cases, gives us an idea of the technology needed to hunt!). If it’s more of a funerary or ritual context, bird remains (especially ones that have evidence of human modification) may also help us better understand beliefs of the past!

Chicken

Probably the most pervasive domestic fowl across the world, the chicken is probably one of the most identifiable bird bones out there due to how different their bones look in comparison to most other birds. I always associate chicken with this rounded look, in contrast to the sort of sharp, edged look that other bird bones have.

There is a current interdisciplinary project going on looking at the social, cultural, and environmental impact of the chicken called the Chicken Project.

Bantam

“Bantam poultry” usually refers to chicken or ducks that have are different breeds from what we normally call chicken/ducks, resulting in some morphological differences. The bones above are from a game hen, which is the closest thing I have in my collection to bantam (I do have a bantam chicken as well, but it’s currently being decreased!).

Compare those bones to the chicken bones above – See the difference in rounded bone versus sharp bone?

Guinea fowl

Guinea fowl are native to parts of Africa, but have been introduced elsewhere as domesticated fowl. Apparently it’s a bit similar to turkey, but I’ve never eaten it myself (feel free to let me know what it’s like if you’ve eaten it!).

Differentiating between something like bantam poultry and guinea fowl would be a bit difficult, as you can see – there’s certainly some similarities in the size and shape of bones! However, I’d argue that guinea fowl bones have a been more thickness on them, but to be fair I’ve rarely had to work with them in my projects in Scotland.

Geese

Geese are not always considered domestic fowl, but depending on the region and context of the site, it’s a possibility. I figured I would throw it in here for fun, though!

The size and thickness of goose bones is a good indicator for identification, especially in comparison to most other bird bones. Especially if you have the skull – that bill is a dead giveaway! Although it’s easy to confuse with a duck.

Spooky, Scary, Inaccurate Skeletons

Spooky, Scary, Inaccurate Skeletons

Happy Halloween from Major Buzzkill! To celebrate, I’m going to ruin everyone’s fun and take a look at a recent trend in Halloween decorations: the inaccurate animal skeletons.

Let me preface this by saying I think these decorations are super cute and if I ever get past my ever-growing student debt and get a house, I will most likely buy a whole menagerie of spooky animal skeletons.

However…as cute as these decorations are, the zooarchaeologist in me dies a little inside when I see how…well, unrealistic they are.

Let’s start with the raven. Thanks to Mr. Poe, the raven is probably one of the spookiest birds for the season. But what’s even spookier is…well, whatever that plastic skeleton is (left). In reality (right), raven skeletons are a less more hollow, with lots of space throughout the skeleton and larger long bones. Also, the fake raven’s eye sockets are terrifying…or is it just me?

Unsurprisingly, bats have also become spooky, scary skeletons for Halloween. Now, this was a little unfair in that I’m not entirely sure what kind of bat the decoration was going for (seen on the left, the skull is probably a little closer to a vampire bat), but for the sake of comparison, here’s a fruit bat (right) – I’ll give the fake skeleton credit for the bones of the wings being kinda…sorta…close. But look at those ears!

Speaking of ears…what I’ve noticed is that most of these animal skeleton decorations get these strange, bony ears – probably for the sake of differentiating them, but how weird are they?! As for cats…you know, the fake one (left) almost gets it right…minus the ears and the significantly elongated skull that most domestic cats (right) lack – although that’s probably just to give them a cute nose.

And now…perhaps one of the scariest decorations of all…the dog. Judging by those weird bony ears alone (left), I imagined that it was supposed to be a Rottweiler (right)? I’m actually fascinated by the ears on this one…are they weird, floppy bones? How do they work? If anyone wants to brainstorm with me later, let me know.

Again, this is all in good fun – I understand that its a silly Halloween decoration and that some adjustments are made to make them recognisable to the general public! But seriously…what the hell is this, Party City?

Skeletal Spider
I mean…come on, what the hell?

Have a safe and fun Halloween, everyone!

All skeleton decorations are from Party City and all actual skeletons are replicas from Bone Clones.