“I Love Dying and Being Dead” – Late Capitalism and Modern Perceptions of Death

Lately, archaeologists have been a bit concerned about memes. No, not because they’re trying to perfect their comedic skills – rather, there’s been a relatively recent rash of popular memes that were derived from several big archaeological finds. For example, a nearly complete human skeleton was recovered in Pompeii, originally interpreted to have been crushed to death while fleeing the eruption of Mt. Vesuvius in 79 CE. The image used to publicise this excavation – a skeleton whose head has been obfuscated by a stone slab – ended up being used by many as a meme on social media like Twitter and Facebook. This led to a further discussion by archaeologists across the Internet on respecting human remains and whether or not it was ethical to make memes out of recovered bodies, regardless of the age and unknown identity (Finn 2018).

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A Tweet from Patrick Gill (@Pizza_Suplex) commenting on the skeleton recovery that says, “Me to a panicked group of archaeologists moments after I drop a big ass rock on a perfectly preserved Pompeii skeleton: Chill. Let me talk to the press. I’ve got this.”

Although the main concern with this “meme-ification” of the dead is the ethics at play (for more on the ethics of human remains on display, see my blog post on selfies with human remains in the recent Tomb Raider game), I’m more interested in why memes utilising the dead – or associated with death and dying – are so popular these days.

Let’s talk about late capitalism and how it shapes the average young person’s everyday life, shall we?

An image of a tombstone that says “This Space for Rent” – the caption added above it says, “Capitalism even ruins the sweet release of death smh”

Millennials have had the utmost misfortune to reach young adulthood (the “pivotal years”, as many call this time period) during late capitalism. This means that, as a generational group, they are significantly poorer than previous generations (O’Connor 2018), with a growing number unable to even save money (Elkins 2018) from a severe lack of fair wages. This is the generational group that is leaving higher education with high amounts of debt, only to find a feeble job market that demands long hours for little pay. It’s a pretty bleak future that young people seem to have inherited, so it’s honestly hard to blame them for developing such a morbid sense of humour that utilises iconography and imagery associated with death to express such futility in a way that’s become palatable for everyone else.

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A meme from Da Share Zone (@dasharezOne), a popular social media presence that makes images using stock photos of skeletons. This one depicts a (fake) human skeleton wearing a fur coat with a flower crown . The text around it says, “Looking Good, Feeling Bad”. Relatable!

What interests me the most as an archaeologist is how this affects our perception of death and dying in modern times. Morbid memes may be contributing to a sort of desensitisation of dying, to the point where it has become no longer taboo or fearful to speak of the dead – in fact, people actively make fun of the dead and the concept of dying. I would argue that this could be seen as the opposite effect that the Positive Death Movement is having, which strives to cultivate a more positive and respectful attitude towards death. I think, as archaeologists, we definitely need to push back against the meme-ification of the dead as violation of ethics – but I also think we should consider why this has become a trend, how the socio-political characteristics of the world at large can cause these things to become popular, and how we can take this approach and apply it to our interpretations of the past.

References

Elkins, K. (2018) A Growing Percentage of Millennials Have Absolutely Nothing Saved. CBNBC. Retrieved from https://www.cnbc.com/2018/02/09/a-growing-percentage-of-millennials-have-absolutely-nothing-saved.html

Finn, E. (2018) Pompeii Should Teach Us to Celebrate People’s Lives, Not Mock Their Death. The Conversation. Retrieved from http://theconversation.com/pompeii-should-teach-us-to-celebrate-peoples-lives-not-mock-their-death-97632

O’Connor, S. (2018) Millennials Poorer than Previous Generations, Data Show. Financial Times. Retrieved from https://www.ft.com/content/81343d9e-187b-11e8-9e9c-25c814761640

 

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The Perfect Pokemon: A Brief Look at Selective Animal Breeding

Is there a “Perfect Pokemon”? Well, I guess technically there is the genetically engineered Mewtwo…but what about “naturally occurring” Pokemon? Can Trainers “breed” them for battle?

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Pokeballs wait to be healed up.

A form of “Pokemon breeding” has been a vital part of the competitive scene for years. Players took advantage of hidden stats known as “Individual Values”, or “IV’s”, which would influence a Pokemon’s proficiency in battle. These stats could be changed based on training and utilising certain items in-game. In order to have the most control over a Pokemon’s IV’s, it is best if a Player breeds a Pokemon from the start by hatching them from an Egg, allowing for modification of stats  from the very start. This is in contrast to usiong caught Pokemon, which are often above Level 1, so some of their important stats have already been changed “naturally” (Tapsell 2017).

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By looking at the stats of your Pokemon, you can figure out how best to perfect it through training.

But what about real life animal breeding? More specifically, “selective breeding” – this refers to human-influenced or artificial breeding to maximise certain traits, such as better production of certain materials (for example, milk or wool) or better physicality for domestication (stronger builds for beasts of burden, etc.). This is in contrast to natural breeding or selection, in which the best traits towards survival and adaptation are passed through breeding, although these traits may not be best suited for human use of the animal. Selective breeding is most likely as old as domestication itself, but its only been recently (at least, in the past few centuries) that humans have more drastically modified animal genetics (Oldenbroek and van der Waaij 2015).

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Various dog breeds represented by their skulls – an example of how breeding can dramatically modify the anatomy of an animal (Image Credit: A. Drake, Skidmore Department of Biology)

But can we see selective breeding archaeologically? For the most part, this sort of investigation requires a large amount of data – zooarchaeologists can see dramatic modifications to bred animals by examining large assemblages of animal remains over time. Arguably one of the best examples of this can be seen in looking at dog domestication and how breeding techniques have drastically changed aspects of canine anatomy (Morley 1994).

Zooarchaeological data can be supplemental by other sources of evidence, such as text and material remains. Perhaps the most powerful innovation in archaeological science, however, is DNA analysis – using techniques such as ancient DNA (aDNA), we can see specific genetic markers to further investigate exact points of change (MacKinnon 2001, 2010).

The most recent additions to the Pokemon video game franchise, Pokemon: Let’s Go Pikachu and Let’s Go Eevee have not only streamlined gameplay, but have also made the previously “invisible stats” more visible and trackable to the chagrin of some seasoned Pokemon players. However, for new players this is undoubtably a welcome change…now if only we could make it just as easy to see in real life zooarchaeology!

References

MacKinnon, M. (2001) High on the Hog: Linking Zooarchaeological, Literary, and Artistic Data for Pig Breeds in Roman Italy. American Journal of Archaeology. 105(4). pp. 649-673.

MacKinnon, M. (2010) Cattle ‘Breed’ Variation and Improvement in Roman Italy: Connecting the Zooarchaeological and Ancient Textual Evidence. World Archaeology. 42(1). pp. 55-73.

Morey, D.F. (1994) The Early Evolution of the Domestic Dog. American Scientist. 82(4). pp. 336-347.

Oldenbroek, K. and van der Waaij, L. (2015) Textbook Animal Breeding and Genetics for BSc Students. Centre for Genetic Resources The Netherlands and Animal Breeding and Genomics Centre. Retrieved from https://wiki.groenkennisnet.nl/display/TAB/Textbook+Animal+Breeding+and+Genetics

Tapsell, C. (2017) Pokemon Sun and Moon Competitive Training Guide. Eurogamer. Retrieved from https://www.eurogamer.net/articles/2017-12-15-pokemon-sun-and-moon-competitive-training-guide-how-to-raise-the-best-strongest-pokemon-for-competitive-play-4925

Fallout Finds: Recreating Romans in New Vegas

In Fallout: New Vegas (Obsidian Entertainment 2010), the post-apocalyptic world of Nevada has split up into various factions (sometimes referred to as “tribes” in-game) that are in a constant struggle to regain control of the land, specifically the New Vegas Strip.

Arguably the major antagonistic faction (although your player character can choose to join forces with them near the end of the game) is Caesar’s Legion. Within the game’s lore, Edward Sallow, originally part of a faction called the Followers of the Apocalypse, came across a cache of books during his travels and became obsessed with those detailing the Roman Empire. Soon after, Sallow began to conquer and absorb local tribes into his ever-growing army through enslavement. By the start of the video game, Sallow has now taken the mantle of “Caesar” and rules over a sizeable army of soldiers, spies, and slaves and represents a significant threat to the New Vegas area.

Vulpes Inculta
Vulpes Inculta, part of the Legion’s Frumentarii, in his military uniform.

So how does these post-apocalyptic Romans compare to their real life, historical counterparts? Aesthetically, the New Vegas legionnaires have done their best to recreate Roman Imperial armour, but while historical armour had the luxury of gilding and other fancy embellishments depending on the status (MacMullen 1960), armour in New Vegas was restrained to whatever material that could be scavenged. This touches upon one of the major recurring themes of the Fallout series, which is the reuse of the debris of the nuclear war to create new weapons, tools, and armour. All legionnaires in New Vegas are outfitted in what appears to be repurposed American football gear and jerseys. Higher status officials, such as Centurions, will have have certain ornamentation to differentiation themselves from the average foot soldier – this may include metal spikes and paint on shoulder pads, animal furs, or helmet decoration, such as feathers. The Legate, as the leader of the army, wears specifically created metal armour, displaying his commanding status over all soldiers .

As a means of staying true to the historical Romans, Caesar’s Legion is mostly outfitted with melee weapons such as machetes and spears. However, advanced technology has also made its way into the ranks – guns are usually scavenged by soldiers and used when found, and higher officials will often have weapons based on the (futuristic to us) technology of New Vegas, such as thermic lances and pneumatic power fists. Like the Romans, the Legion also made use of crucifying as a method of punishment.

The organisation of the New Vegas Legion is a fairly accurate recreation of the historical Roman military, albeit rather simplified and re-appropriate several titles in roles that are only somewhat equivalent to their real-life counterparts (Sumner 1970, MacMullen 1984, Roth 1994). In New Vegas, the Legion has a hierarchical structure made entirely of men, with Caesar atop as dictator. Below him is the Legate, who leads the army, and the Centurions, who were commanders underneath the Legate. A Praetorian guard personally guarded Caesar himself, while the Frumentarri, based on the name given to food supply officers turned spies in the Roman Legion, were Caesar’s spy network. Those captured from conquered tribes and towns were promptly enslaved and fitted with bomb collars to prevent escapes; most slaves were put to work doing menial tasks, with those deemed too weak to be useful crucified or otherwise killed.

Edward Sallow
Edward Sallow in command of the Legion as Caesar.

From an archaeological perspective, the Legion is a interesting example of selectively recreating and repurposing the past for the sake of organisation and domination. Prior to his reign as Caesar, Sallow was known to look down on other tribes as “lesser” and “inferior” creatures. To Sallow, Ancient Rome spoke to these imperialistic and fascist tendencies, and so he created a totalitarian dictatorship in its image to dominate the land with his ideology.

Like many leaders in Ancient Rome, Sallow also claimed divine right as leader – as Caesar, he claimed that he was the Son of Mars, who had brought nuclear war upon the United States to cleanse it for Caesar’s eventual rule. This divine right to lead created the propaganda needed to not only present the Legion as a powerful force to enemies, but it also kept Sallow in power as the sole dictator.

This propaganda, like in real life, also takes form in the shape of art, specifically coinage. Currency in Caesar’s Legion are decorated with depictions of Caesar  and inscribed with Latin propagandistic phrases, such as “Pax Per Bellum” (Peace through War). The importance and value of the New Vegas denarius (silver coins) and aureus (gold coins) can be seen in their creation, as these were difficult-to-find materials and most likely also difficult to create in the current post-apocalyptic landscape.

The tag line of the Fallout video games is “war never changes”, a sentiment that could also be expressed as “history repeats itself”. The Legion of New Vegas is a prime example of how the ugly head of imperialistic forces will rear its head time and time again, sometimes in the same form it once held many, many years ago.

The Fort, the headquarters and main camp of Caesar’s Legion in Nevada

References

Anonymous. (2011) Caesar’s Legion. Nukapedia: Fallout Wikia

MacMullen, R. (1960) Inscriptions on Armor and the Supply of Arms in the Roman Empire. American Journal of Archaeology. (p. 23-40)

MacMullen, R. (1984) The Legion as a Society. Historia: Zeitschrift fur Alte Geschichte. (p. 440- 456)

Obsidian Entertainment. (2010) Fallout: New Vegas

Roth, J. (1994) The Size and Organization of the Roman Imperial Legion. Historia: Zeitschrift fur Alte Geschichte. (p. 346-362)

Sumner, G.V. (1970) The Legion and the Centuriate Organization. The Journal of Roman Studies. (p. 67-78)

American Stonehenge, or the Time that My Friends Took Me on Holiday to Watch My Head Explode

I’ve lived in England for nearly three years now, and yet I have never been to Stonehenge. I feel like that’s a bit embarrassing as an archaeologist, but I just never made the time for it so far!

That said, I have been to American Stonehenge. Yeah, that’s a thing.

Behold…the 8th Wonder of the World, American Stonehenge!

According to the owners of the site, American Stonehenge is exactly like its English counterpart – built thousands of years ago by ancient seafarers who travelled from Europe…or maybe an unknown Native American culture…one of the two. The site is allegedly over 4,000 years old, based on “Phoenician” and “Ogham” writings found carved in stone.

In actuality, American Stonehenge is a site originally known as “Mystery Hill” that has been a roadside attraction for decades. The “mysterious” stone buildings and structures on the site were most likely originally made for farm storage, with additional ones created once it became a tourist site.

You know its a good “archaeological site” when there’s a sacrificial table!

So why would I be at such a pseudoarchaeological site?

Well, blame my friends. Apparently they thought it was funny to see how increasingly annoyed their archaeologist friend would get at a fake site – and they were right (there’s a great video somewhere of my face getting more and more angry-looking as we watched a presentation about the prehistoric Europeans that sailed to America to erect their Stonehenge).

But I have to admit, it was a bit fun to walk around and correct the signs posted around the site, as well as teach my friends a bit more about my own field. Although as archaeologists we should be combatting pseudoarchaeology when we can…I think sometimes we can also take a short trip to one of the biggest hoax sites there is and enjoy ourselves a little (and for a great crash course in pseudoarchaeology, check out my friend Stephanie Halmhofer’s new series at Bones, Stones, and Books!).

As you can see by my face, I really had a good time.

Fallout Finds: A New Series

While I was explaining the idea of the Studies in Skyrim series to my partner, he suddenly cut in – “Why aren’t you doing a series on archaeology in Fallout 4? Isn’t that the most archaeological video game out there?”

And he was right – the Fallout series, which takes place after a nuclear war that devastates most of the United States in a post-apocalyptic landscape that is slowly repopulated by “Vault Dwellers” who escaped the destruction, is a great look at how future civilizations repurpose the past. A lot of the video games’ humour comes from hilariously misunderstood interpretations of “Pre-War” artefacts (for example, the belief that baseball bats were weapons used in the bloodthirsty fighting game of baseball).

So, starting in 2018 I’ll be writing a new series called “Fallout Finds” examining not only the archaeology of some of the Fallout games, but also what it may say about how future archaeologists will look at our material culture, and how future peoples may repurpose it for their own use. Stay tuned!

This Fallout 4 character is obviously the spitting image of me.

Studies in Skyrim: A New Series

Skyrim? The video game Skyrim? Who do you think you are, Alex, some sort of “archaeogamer”?

Well, not really…I’ll leave that to the professionals over at archaeogaming.com. But, as someone who has spent at least 400 hours on Skyrim across three different gaming platforms, I’ve come to realise that Skyrim, which boasts probably one of the most extensive material records I’ve ever seen in a video game, is a great jumping off point to talk about various examples of archaeological finds we have in the real world!

So, if you think tombs filled with the walking dead, rituals that utilise cannibalism, or even some of the magical alchemy ingredients are just inventions of a fantasy video game world, I’ll be delving into their actual, real world counterparts in this new series.

Plus, this gives me an excuse to play more Skyrim.

A Skyrim player character gets ready to be put through hell for the sake of screenshots.

Keeper of the Archives: Sith Archaeology and Propaganda

Keeper of the Archives is a new series I’ll be formally introducing to the blog next year, but because of the release of the latest Star Wars film, I felt like I had to provide a sneak peek! This series will be a fun look at archaeology in popular culture, specifically in the Star Wars (expanded) universe! Keep your eye out for more installations in the upcoming year.

Valley of the Dark Lords
Sith archaeological excavation sites outside the Sith Academy on Korriban

Unsurprisingly for a fictional universe that takes place “a long time ago, in a galaxy far, far away”, there is a fair amount of representation for archaeology in the lore of Star Wars. This is especially true for the Expanded Universe (recently made uncanonical with Disney’s acquisition of the franchise, but still canonical in the hearts of many fans – including my own!).

For Jedi, the role of the archaeologist was an alternative to following the path of becoming a Jedi Knight. Jedi archaeologists would train at the Academy of Jedi Archaeology before heading off with the Jedi Exploration Corps for excavation alongside other researchers, such as biologists and zoologists (Wallace 2010). On the other side of the Force, however, the Sith were also actively pursuing their own archaeological research.

In the video game series Knights of the Old Republic (Bioware 2003), for example, the Sith academy on the planet Korriban appears to be in the midst of a large scale excavation of the “Valley of the Dark Lords”, similar to Egypt’s own “Valley of the Kings”. The ruins of the tombs of several Sith lords have been uncovered here – Ajunta Pall, Ludo Kressh, Naga Sadow, and Marka Ragnos. As you enter the excavation site, you encounter numerous Sith students and droids at work – often in dangerous circumstances, as predatory creatures are also found throughout the ruins.

So why would the Sith care this much about archaeology? Most likely the same reason why archaeological research has been used by fascists and dictators in the real world’s past: propaganda. For example, excavations under Nazi Germany were led with the intent of producing results that would become part of the proud nationalism that so identified their political party (Galaty and Watkinson 2007). As a political tool, archaeology can be used as “proof” for a distorted past that gives credit to whatever propaganda a political party is rallying behind; that one race is better than another, that one’s beliefs are more true, etc. History can be a powerful tool for oppression, and the misuse of archaeology makes for an excellent tool in legitimising (Arnold 2008).

In the Star Wars universe, the same can be said of Sith archaeology. The Sith, unlike their Jedi counterparts, believe that one should be proud of the power they wield, and constantly seek more. The tombs of the ancient Sith, as well as most of the walls of the Sith Academy itself, are lined with massive iconography depicting towering statuary that lord over the valley itself, creating an oppressive aesthetic that fits the Sith ideology well.

Statues in the Valley of the Dark Lords
The giant statuary standing above the Valley of the Dark Lords

Of course, there’s another level of practicality in archaeology of the Star Wars universe – the past can actually talk back. Holocrons are common methods of recording information by both the Sith and the Jedi, allowing for users to be taught by the recorded holograms of those from the ancient past (Wallace 2010). Spectral beings, through the Force, can also be encountered and spoken with – this may come in the form of a benign spirit, such as Obi-Wan Kenobi in Empire Strikes Back and Return of the Jedi, or in a malicious spirit ready to fight and kill any mortal that dares to intrude, as seen in the many tombs of the Sith.

The Sith use this interactivity with the past as a tool not only for pushing their own propaganda, but also instilling the lessons they live by – that power is key, and only be defeating those around you can you succeed (Veitch and Anderson 1994). In Knights of the Old Republic, you infiltrate the Sith Academy as an apprentice  and are put to work diving into the ruins of the Sith tombs. The usefulness of this practice is twofold for the Sith masters – on one hand, the defence mechanisms placed into the tombs, which consist of dangerous creatures as well as dark Force spirits, can weed out the weak from the strong, an important aspect in Sith ideology. On the other hand, this also aids in the retrieval of many Sith artefacts – again, a showcase of power that works as propaganda, as well as a transfer of power itself. A Sith who wields the mighty sword of Ajunta Pall, for example, could lay some hefty claim on power within the Sith hierarchy.

In the Star Wars universe, the Sith are an example of the corruptibility of power – how greed for power, even if it begins with good intentions, can lead to the Dark Side. The same can be said for archaeology in a sense – although it may have started with the intention of discovering the past, in the wrong hands it can be used as a political weapon as powerful and as deadly as a red bladed lightsaber and corrupt any good that may have once come from it.

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The massive ruins of Sith tombs in the Valley of the Dark Lords

References

Arnold, B. (2008) The Past as Propaganda: Totalitarian Archaeology in Nazi Germany. Antiquity.

Bioware. (2003) Star Wars: Knights of the Old Republic

Galaty, M. L. and Watkinson, C. (2007) The Practice of Archaeology Under Dictatorship. Archaeology under Dictatorship. pp. 1-17.

Obsidian Entertainment. (2004) Star Wars: Knights of the Old Republic II The Sith Lords

Veitch, T. and Anderson, K. J. (1994) The Quest for the Sith. Tales of the Jedi: Dark Lords of the Sith 2. Vol. 2. Dark Horse Comics.

Wallace, D. (2010) The Jedi Path: A Manual for Students of the Force. Chronicle Books.

All I Want For Christmas is a Skeleton: An Archaeological Wishlist for the Holidays

It’s the holiday season, so would I be a proper blogger if I didn’t write up a gift guide? As someone who tries to support small businesses and individual artists when I can, all of the gifts will be from Etsy (which, to be fair, I’ve found has some of the coolest and most unique stuff for gifts!).

If you’ve got an archaeologist in your life, here’s a list of things that might score you some points with them over the holidays:

  • For the classical archaeologist who just got into the denim jacket craze- famous archaeological finds in pin and patch form!SaladDays is an Etsy store that creates amazing enamel pins and patches based on classic works of art throughout history. This includes some of the most famous archaeological finds from Ancient Greece and Rome – perfect for any classical archaeologist in your life.

  • For the bioarchaeologist who asked for a gift card but you want to make sure it’s delivered in a relatable way – bad osteology joke greeting cards! A Sense of Humerus is an Etsy store that makes cute and hilarious cards that would make any bone specialist laugh…or at least cringe a bit. But the illustrations are lovely!

  • For the too-cool-for-school punk archaeologist who has been working on their own archaeological zine for the past six months – a set of cool, independently made archaeology comics! Prehistories creates gorgeously illustrated and archaeologically-inspired work on their Etsy store –

  • For the ceramics specialist who would probably be more interested in checking your dinnerware for residue after your holiday dinner – beautifully made replicas of archaeological pottery! PottedHistory has been creating some absolutely gorgeous replicas of archaeological pottery that spans from the Neolithic to even the 20th century.

  • And for me, the zooarchaeologist who has been trying to build up her own personal reference collection as ethically as possible – amazingly accurate animal skeleton replicas! Okay, so Bone Clones isn’t an Etsy store, but they’re probably one of the most popular manufacturers of replica animal bones out there!

Happy holidays from Animal Archaeology!

I will be putting this blog on hiatus as I travel back to the US for Christmas and will be back at the start of 2018 with lots of new and exciting features! Stay tuned!

A Thanksgiving Blog Post Without Turkeys, ‘Cos I Don’t Have Any Turkey Bones

As an American, I feel a bit obligated to make a themed-post for Thanksgiving. But here’s the problem: I don’t have any turkey bones in my collection.

So, what’s a zooarchaeologist blogger to do? Well, the next best thing: here’s a minipost looking at the bones of domestic fowl and why it’s important to differentiate between domestic and wild birds in an archaeological assemblage.

Have a happy Thanksgiving, fellow Americans!

In zooarchaeology, domestic fowl usually refers to domesticated species of birds such as chickens, turkeys, and guineafowl. Of course, this can vary greatly depending on the regional and temporal contexts of an assemblage.

Differentiating between domesticated and wild birds are just as important as differentiating between domesticated and wild mammals. This gives us a better idea of what kind of food and other animal products accessible to the inhabitants of a site, as well as what may have been hunted (and in some cases, gives us an idea of the technology needed to hunt!). If it’s more of a funerary or ritual context, bird remains (especially ones that have evidence of human modification) may also help us better understand beliefs of the past!

Chicken

Probably the most pervasive domestic fowl across the world, the chicken is probably one of the most identifiable bird bones out there due to how different their bones look in comparison to most other birds. I always associate chicken with this rounded look, in contrast to the sort of sharp, edged look that other bird bones have.

There is a current interdisciplinary project going on looking at the social, cultural, and environmental impact of the chicken called the Chicken Project.

Bantam

“Bantam poultry” usually refers to chicken or ducks that have are different breeds from what we normally call chicken/ducks, resulting in some morphological differences. The bones above are from a game hen, which is the closest thing I have in my collection to bantam (I do have a bantam chicken as well, but it’s currently being decreased!).

Compare those bones to the chicken bones above – See the difference in rounded bone versus sharp bone?

Guinea fowl

Guinea fowl are native to parts of Africa, but have been introduced elsewhere as domesticated fowl. Apparently it’s a bit similar to turkey, but I’ve never eaten it myself (feel free to let me know what it’s like if you’ve eaten it!).

Differentiating between something like bantam poultry and guinea fowl would be a bit difficult, as you can see – there’s certainly some similarities in the size and shape of bones! However, I’d argue that guinea fowl bones have a been more thickness on them, but to be fair I’ve rarely had to work with them in my projects in Scotland.

Geese

Geese are not always considered domestic fowl, but depending on the region and context of the site, it’s a possibility. I figured I would throw it in here for fun, though!

The size and thickness of goose bones is a good indicator for identification, especially in comparison to most other bird bones. Especially if you have the skull – that bill is a dead giveaway! Although it’s easy to confuse with a duck.

Spooky, Scary, Inaccurate Skeletons

Happy Halloween from Major Buzzkill! To celebrate, I’m going to ruin everyone’s fun and take a look at a recent trend in Halloween decorations: the inaccurate animal skeletons.

Let me preface this by saying I think these decorations are super cute and if I ever get past my ever-growing student debt and get a house, I will most likely buy a whole menagerie of spooky animal skeletons.

However…as cute as these decorations are, the zooarchaeologist in me dies a little inside when I see how…well, unrealistic they are.

Let’s start with the raven. Thanks to Mr. Poe, the raven is probably one of the spookiest birds for the season. But what’s even spookier is…well, whatever that plastic skeleton is (left). In reality (right), raven skeletons are a less more hollow, with lots of space throughout the skeleton and larger long bones. Also, the fake raven’s eye sockets are terrifying…or is it just me?

Unsurprisingly, bats have also become spooky, scary skeletons for Halloween. Now, this was a little unfair in that I’m not entirely sure what kind of bat the decoration was going for (seen on the left, the skull is probably a little closer to a vampire bat), but for the sake of comparison, here’s a fruit bat (right) – I’ll give the fake skeleton credit for the bones of the wings being kinda…sorta…close. But look at those ears!

Speaking of ears…what I’ve noticed is that most of these animal skeleton decorations get these strange, bony ears – probably for the sake of differentiating them, but how weird are they?! As for cats…you know, the fake one (left) almost gets it right…minus the ears and the significantly elongated skull that most domestic cats (right) lack – although that’s probably just to give them a cute nose.

And now…perhaps one of the scariest decorations of all…the dog. Judging by those weird bony ears alone (left), I imagined that it was supposed to be a Rottweiler (right)? I’m actually fascinated by the ears on this one…are they weird, floppy bones? How do they work? If anyone wants to brainstorm with me later, let me know.

Again, this is all in good fun – I understand that its a silly Halloween decoration and that some adjustments are made to make them recognisable to the general public! But seriously…what the hell is this, Party City?

Skeletal Spider
I mean…come on, what the hell?

Have a safe and fun Halloween, everyone!

All skeleton decorations are from Party City and all actual skeletons are replicas from Bone Clones.